Antlia Litepaper

Introduction

Antlia is an Interoperable and scalable blockchain with trusted smart contract based oracles for seamless data and asset sharing. Assume a web of blockchains where thousands of chains co-exist and every chain has its own metadata, data and cryptocurrency. In this case, users of one chain can only exchange and trade assets, data, services or goods from within that single chain. Currently, users of one blockchain cannot directly connect, exchange data or communicate with any other blockchain without having intermediary. Moreover, Legacy digital systems cannot exchange their data with any blockchain.

Antlia Blockchain

Blockchains as a standalone entity have failed to generate an effective impact in the real world scenarios. Antlia scalable blockchain aims to be an interoperable blockchain having oracles that solve such bottlenecks for interoperability. Antlia will link blockchain to blockchains and digital systems which will ensure high cross-chain exchanges efficiency and enhance resilience to fault tolerance. The end result has much higher security and improved throughput.

Our Antlia blockchain will be accompanied with interoperable dApps: Wallet, Explorer, Faucet and Antlia IDE for writing smart contractswith smart contract templates based on web assembly” as the interfaces to interact with the Antlia blockchain. During the first phase of Antlia blockchain’s launch, a centralized exchange will also be instigated which will allow the users to become a part of the Antlia ecosystem. During the later stages, Antlia ecosystem will include Decentralized Finance (DeFi) tools that will help create a decentralized eco-system in true sense.

Consensus

Antlia has proposed an approach to consensus called rollover Proof of Stake “rPoS '' and its consensus engine is based on modified tendermint ''PBFT”. Antlia rPoS helps to achieve decentralisation with high throughput and security. rPoS eliminates waste from PoW’s computation of resources and centralisation of DPoS/PoS. Antlia consensus provides balance between liveness and safety. The Antlia consensus protocol provides high security through unbiased randomness generated at every 05 blocks’ proposal.

Modified Tendermint Consensus Engine

To understand why Antlia is using Modified Tendermint, it is extremely important to understand the Tendermint PBFT base consensus engine. Tendermint is a byzantine fault-tolerant consensus algorithm used for securely and consistently replicating an application on multiple machines. Being a BFT consensus algorithm, Tendermint can work even if 1/3rd of the machines fail or act maliciously. Tendermint not only has an authenticated encryption system for peer discovery but it also has a high throughput in terms of less block confirmation time and Transaction Per Second (TPS) rate. Tendermint’s core responsibilities include sharing blocks and transactions between nodes (blockchains) and establishing a fixed order of transactions. Antlia will use tendermint protocol’s functionality of a blockchain consensus engine which ensures that the same transactions are recorded on every machine in the same order. Every machine whether faulty or non-faulty sees the same log of transactions and machine state. Another major reason to use tendermint is its instant block finality. Tendermint’s Proof of Stake (PoS) is much more scalable than traditional Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm. However, Tendermint is accused of centralization by the community. To improve decentralisation, Antlia brings a concept of rollover PoS algorithm.

Rollover PoS

In this section, we describe Antlia’s rPoS consensus engine and its basic concepts

rPoS Consensus Engine

Validator’s Selection Mechanism

Using Antlia’s rPoS, a number of validators will be selected; the validators set will not be fixed but rollover. The rPoS engine will randomly search for the validators on the basis of a number of factors such as health, liveness and safety. After every 50 blocks “roughly every 02 minutes”, new set of a validators will be selected from the pool with a 10% rollover rate i.e. within the five blocks mining time duration, the validator pool undergoes following changes:

  1. The validators will be sorted in the ascending fashion on the basis of health, liveness and safety. Validators having best health comes first and vice versa.

  2. The last 10% of the validators will be swapped with the new ones on the basis of the algorithm.

This sorting and swapping will allow new validators to enter, making the system more decentralized and trustless.

Voting Mechanism

The chosen validators will start voting on the blocks, therein, developing consensus on the list of transactions. The voting for consensus happens in repetitive sequences where a proposing validator proposed a block to validate the transactions. The chosen validators vote to either accept or reject the proposed block. The proposing validator is selected on the basis of their service to the community, number of blocks they have voted on, in proportion to their voting power. Like any byzantine fault tolerant consensus algorithm

  1. ⅔ of the total votes should be in the favor of the proposed block to be accepted

  2. If more than ⅓ of the total votes are malicious, there will be a threat to a system in which case the consensus identifies the malicious nodes and takes an action against them mentioned in detail at a later stage

Attack Prevention

Antlia’s Protocol will discourage the participating validators to act in malicious manner by introducing the concept of “Grounding”. Antlia will actively stop the validators by:

  1. Cutting some/or full stake.

  2. Imposing grounding period on the validators so that they cannot propose a new block or vote for the new block.

Antlia’s Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)

Antlia’s Inter Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol will allow the state machines-independent in nature to communicate. These state machines may be blockchains or distributed ledgers. This protocol will enable the communication among different state machines by acting as a communication bridge between them. The communication bridge will be called “Antlia Powerhouse”, more details will be given in the whitepaper. The goal of IBC is to achieve the real life application of multi-token wallet systems with multi-token transferring. This will be possible by achieving fully functional IBC. This will allow users to rely on a single wallet to transact across different blockchains which will eventually make blockchain to be widely adopted.

  • Antlia will create an interface for blockchains to become interoperable by using IBC (Inter Blockchain Communication).

  • Interoperability will ensure transaction management and concurrency control.

  • Antlia will preserve the autonomy of blockchains such that the individual blockchains satisfy their own needs first.

  • It allows blockchains to exchange data and assets across pre-defined networks while the data may not be manipulatable.

  • Blockchains will not be integrated together, they will only be made interoperable.

Antlia Interoperability (AIBC)

Antlia Oracles

Antlia Oracles will be the trusted third party entities that will transfer data to and from Antlia blockchain and other data structures. They will simply function as a data supplier to the Antlia blockchain through smart contracts. Here, the smart contracts evaluate the incoming data from the oracle and then initiate an action in the blockchain based on the received information. The key of using Antlia oracles is that it enables blockchains to communicate outside of its network. It eventually brings data into the blockchain's consensus mechanism. Moreover, in Antlia, blockchain oracles will act in a way to supply data from the exchanges to the smart contracts of Antlia’s core network.

Antlia Oracle Pools

Connection between smart contract and oracle

A smart contract being a self-executing piece of code will evaluate data from Antlia’s oracle and will proceed an execution on the basis of that information. Here, smart contracts are not required to directly access information from the outside network which lightens their workload. Similarly, in Antlia, the data sources will not provide information to smart contracts directly. Through consensus-based oracles, this proceeding will be divided as follows:

  1. Antlia’s oracle will collect the required-only information from the outside sources.

  2. The information by oracle, will be passed to its smart contracts for execution.

  3. After execution, smart contracts will pass the information to Antlia’s core network.

Antlia VM with smart contract developing tools

Antlia's first implementation of virtual machine will run on top of Antlia SDK application. The choice of VM language for Antlia is Web Assembly. This WASM virtual machine will act as an intermediate language that will compile the smart contract’s programming language into a portable VM.

Antlia Smart Contract Developing Tools

ANA Coin

The ANA Coin is a unit of value that is native to the Antlia Blockchain. ANA coin can be generated using WASM based smart contract at Antlia Blockchain. Currently, ANA coin will be used for Gas and staking purposes at Antlia Blockchain Network.

Smart Contract Creation

The smart contract creation on Antlia’s VM will enable the “write once, run everywhere” feature so that the program developer will write only one version that can run on different servers. These smart contracts on Antlia’s WASM will lay the basis for Antlia's IBC architecture by running on different chains. The desired outcome of decentralization is therefore concurred by allowing distributed deployment to achieve the deterministic characteristics that every node should possess. Most of the smart contracts follow the script mode to implement the programmatic logic, the most prominent example being BTC. Though this mode has been quite effective for initiating and validating transactions, it faces a major drawback of scalability. Antlia VM with its smart contract developing tools will not only enhance scalability but allow the developers from different programming languages to compile smart contracts on one machine.

Use of Web Assembly

The platform independence that Antlia VM is seeking could be made possible using web assembly. Moreover, Antlia VM will also offer multiple different family languages to smart contract developers such as C/C++, Rust, Typescript and Haxe, therein, allowing the developers to code in the language they are comfortable with and then run on the browser. Besides this, the use of WASM in Antlia VM will have the added advantage of being memory-safe, sandboxed, and platform-independent.

Antlia WASM Smart Contract Functions

Antlia’s WebAssembly contracts will be black boxes having no entry points and access to the outer world. The smart contracts built on the WASM will be unmodifiable by anyone. The allowed functions will include:

Upload contracts

The smart contract tools will allow the Antlia’s ecosystem supporters to upload WASM bytecode providing functionality to connect to Antlia. After uploading the contract code, it should undergo an audit from the Antlia's eco-system supporters and validators to decide whether the functionality implemented in the contract is useful. Once the contract receives a positive vote, the smart contract will be activated.

Instantiate contracts

Once the smart contract is uploaded and voted on, an instance will be created for it to be usable. A unique contract address will be then assigned.

Disable Contracts

In case, if the smart contract is against any of the Antlia governance rules, the smart contract shall be disabled.

Antlia Use Cases

Antlia Exchange & Wallet

Using Antlia centralized exchange, the traders will be able to gain Ana coin after the investment period ends. Antlia centralized cryptocurrency will allow the traders to trade the listed cryptocurrencies with Ana Coin. The trader shall also be able to store the supported cryptocurrency on Antlia Exchange's wallet. These funds will create the liquidity pool for the exchange.

Antlia's Multicoin Wallet will be non-custodial wallet having support for ANA and BNB coin. It will be in variety of versions, mobile, web, browser, extension & nano ledger.

Antlia Wallet

Antlia Multichain Explorer

Antlia Multichain Explorer will monitor the status of different metrics of Antlia network specifically ANA and BNA Coin. With its customized query support, it will allow the user to filter detailed results. It will have both Web and Mobile Interfaces

Antlia Explorer

Antlia’s DeFi Ecosystem

The centralized exchanges have various drawbacks that Antlia Defi Ecosystem will try to improve such as:

  • Centralized deciding authority reduces independence from the system.

  • Higher risk of being hacked

  • Higher trading fees.

  • Involvement of centralized Broker or Brokerage service to Buy or Sell.

  • Longer waiting time for order matching.

  • Low liquidity

DEX

To improve all these problems, the Antlia ecosystem will include:

Antlia DEX will have no central point of failure and will be uncensorable. It will provide full control over private keys and how those funds are used, secured, and transparent trading to the traders. More it will be the solution for:

  • Lower fees

  • Less operation cost

  • Lesser down time

The order matching on DEX will be done via WASM smart contracts while other things related to the process will be done via on-chain settlement. Maker and Trader will submit their order in the smart contract and the trade process will be simple: Deposit, trade, and withdraw.

Liquidity Pool

Antlia Defi ecosystem will build liquidity providing applications that will find the best interest yields from different lending platforms. This application will employ a technique called Yield Farming that will be responsible for moving the crypto assets across multiple platforms to generate most returns possible by trailing the liquidity pools to generate high interests.

Aggregator

Antlia will build an aggregator module where it will assemble the orders from existing decentralized exchanges to calculate the mean values of the price the cryptocurrencies have been selling on the market. These mean values will then be passed onto the DEX and CEX. It improves the liquidity by combatting the lack of orders. When you compare an asset’s price on a single centralized exchange to its price on a single DEX, the DEX’s price is usually worse. This drives traders away – often to centralized exchanges – creating a feedback loop that keeps liquidity low on each DEX and across DEXes. Antlia’s aggregator will connect exchanges together on a single platform to:

  • Increase order matching efficiency

  • Ensure faster transactions

Antlia aims to be a scalable and an interoperable blockchain having oracles that solve such bottlenecks for interoperability where two blockchains are unable to cross communicate. While conventional banking limits people in trade and exchange, Antlia brings in a new ecosystem of centralized and decentralized exchanges and trading engines. It will enhance the scalability of blockchain data sharing as it will be a multiple node oracle system rather than conventional single node. Antlia will provide a more trustless environment for its users so there will be no influence of any other outside authority over the data. Speed of data exchanging will eventually be enhanced within the ecosystem.

Tokenomics

Antlia's token distribution per 100 Million ANA are given down below:

The token releases with respect to different quarters are given below as:

Road Map

2019 (Q4)

  • Ideation Research and Development

  • Blockchain Architecture

  • Consensus Engine Prototyping

2020 (Q1)

  • Wallet Development

  • Web Wallet

  • Android Wallet

  • Browser Extension

  • Nano Ledger Software

2020 (Q2)

  • Blockchain Lab Implementations

  • CLI wallets and Governance Module Testing

  • Blockchain explorer

2020 (Q3)

  • Testnet Launch Preparation

  • Token Economics

  • Antlia Wallet Launch and Multi-coin Development Initiation

2020 (Q4)

  • Light Paper Release

  • Blockchain Prototype Launch

  • Antlia Marketing Initiation

  • ANA VC Round

2021 (Q1)

  • Whitepaper Release

  • Incentivized Testnet Run

  • Validators Setup

  • ANA Token Private Sale

2021 (Q2)

  • Code Open Source

  • WAVM Launch

  • Consensus Optimization

2021 (Q3)

  • Dev IDE

  • Genesis Block

  • Validator Staking Program